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stamppages : free online postage stamp catalogue : People's Democratic Republic of Algeria 1962
|The Évian Accords comprise a treaty signed on 18 March 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France, by France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, the government-in-exile of FLN (Front de Libération Nationale), which sought Algeria's independence from France. The Accords ended the 1954–1962 Algerian War with a formal cease-fire proclaimed for 19 March and formalized the idea of a cooperative exchange between the two countries, as well as the full independence of Algeria from France.|
In a referendum held on 8 April 1962, the French electorate approved the Accords, with almost 91% in favour. The final result was 17,866,423 in favour of Algerian independence, and 1,809,074 against. On 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where with 5,975,581 voted for independence and just 16,534 against. De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on 3 July.
The number of European Pied-Noirs who fled Algeria totaled more than 900,000 between 1962 and 1964. The exodus to mainland France accelerated after the Oran massacre of 1962, in which hundreds of militants entered European sections of the city, and began attacking civilians.
The war of national liberation and its aftermath severely disrupted Algeria's society and economy. In addition to the physical destruction, the exodus of the colons deprived the country of most of its managers, civil servants, engineers, teachers, physicians, and skilled workers — all occupations which colonial policy had prevented or discouraged the Muslim population from pursuing. The homeless and displaced numbered in the hundreds of thousands, many suffering from illness, and some 70 percent of the work force was unemployed. Distribution of goods was at a standstill. Departing colons destroyed or carried off public records and utility plans, leaving public services in shambles.
The creation of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria was formally proclaimed at the opening session of the National Assembly on September 25, 1962.