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stamppages : free online postage stamp catalogue : United States of America (Union) 1861
|Irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the enslavement of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. With the 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, conventions in 13 slave states declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the South or the Confederacy), while the federal government (the Union) maintained that secession was illegal. In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618000 soldiers as well as many civilians. The Union initially simply fought to keep the country united. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery. Two other amendments were also ratified, ensuring citizenship for blacks and, at least in theory, voting rights for them as well.|
20 Dec 1860: In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln, South Carolina proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from the Congress of the United States. Followed in 1861 by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana.
On 8 Feb 1861 the Confederate States of America was formed, and gradualy grew with Texas.
12 April: the Battle of Fort Sumter in South Carolina begins the American Civil War.
Virginia, Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Missouri, Kentucky, all proclaimed its secession the next months.
The bulk of Kansas Territory east of 25°W from Washington was admitted as the thirty-fourth state, Kansas. The remainder became unorganized territory.
In order to prevent the fraudulent use of the large quantity of stamps in the hands of postmasters in the Confederate states, design and color of the stamps was changed.
The 1c Franklin probably served more uses than any stamp of the 1861 Issue. First, it prepaid the drop letter rate for local delivery in large eastern cities if the letter had been hand-delivered to the post office building. Second, it prepaid the delivery of any printed circular or newspaper weighing less than three ounces. Every additional ounce required another 1-cent Franklin. Third, it prepaid the fee for carrier service that delivered mail originating in another town to a local addressee or delivered mail originating at a local address to the post office for deposit in the mails. Fourth, one cent was the postal rate for books weighing less than four pounds. An additional one-cent-per-ounce was charged for distances up to fifteen hundred miles. A book sent over 1500 miles was charged a two-cents-per-ounce fee. Finally, the 1-cent Franklin paid for some third-class mail or, in combination with other higher denominations, greater weight and foreign destination rates. American Bank Note Company was formed in 1858. It printed approximately 138,000,000 stamps of the 1-cent issue.
First issued in 1861 and widely used by Union soldiers during the Civil War, the 3-cent Washington is probably the most familiar regular issue of the Classic Period. It appeared frequently on patriotic cachet covers that depicted inspiring images of Union strength and victory, scenes that rang true later in the war but not in the months following August 1861. Early in the war a string of major Confederate victories—Kessler's Cross Lanes, the Battle of the Hemp Bales, and Ball's Bluff—cast Union victory into doubt. Though one of the 1861 Issues most common and widely used stamps, the subtleties of the 3-cent Washington's color shades are the most difficult of any stamp in the issue. The stamps shades range from rose, the most common, to the rare pigeon blood pink. This is due to a variance in pigment ingredients and/or quantities used when mixing the ink over many press runs during the four-years of issuance. According to specialist Richard M. Morris, issuance dates for the major shades ranged from its original release in August 1861 to 1865. The 3-cent Washingtons primary use was to pre-pay the half-ounce first-class rate, but when used in combination with other denominations, greater weight and foreign destination rates were fulfilled. The National Bank Note Company printed approximately 1,782,000,000 stamps of the 3-cent issue, including all its shades.
Its large size distinguishes the B grill from other grilled stamps. It is 22 points high by 18 points wide (18 X 15 mm) and 'points up' in orientation when viewed from the back. The larger size of this grill may have proved a problem in production, and it was quickly replaced with smaller grills. All four known examples of the B grill appeared on a single cover posted in Mason, Texas, in February 1869. All are denominated at three cents.
The C. Grill is considered to be, along with the A Grill, an experimental grill. The National Bank Note Company for a limited period beginning in late 1867 produced stamps with the C. grill. The grill is 16 to 17 points in width by 18 to 21 points in height. Only one denomination was used with the C. Grill, the 3-cent Washington. An estimated 300,000 3-cent Washington stamp with the C. Grill are believed to have been produced.
After the experimental grills A. and C. were produced the first grill to be put into regular production was the Z. Grill. The first denominations to have the Z. Grill were the 2-cent Jackson, 3-cent Washington and 12-cent Washington stamps. Around the same time the stamps with the D. and E. grills went into production. In mid February of 1868, three other denominations were printed with the Z. Grill, they are the 1-cent Franklin, 10-cent Washington and 15-cent Lincoln stamps. These three denominations were only in production a short time before the new F. Grill was put into full production. As a result, these three denominations with the Z. Grill are far more rare than their three brother denominations printed earlier with the Z. Grill. The 1-cent Franklin today is the rarest with only two known, one being in the Benjamin K. Miller Collection. The Z. grill is 13 to 14 points in width by 18 points in height. An estimated 1,000 1-cent stamps, 500,000 2-cent stamps, 100,000 3-cent stamps, 2,000 10-cent stamps, 100,000 12-cent stamps and probably a similar number of 15-cent stamps as the 1-cent stamp, 1,000, were produced by the National Bank Note Company.
The D. Grill was used on two stamps starting in early 1868. The 3-cent Washington was the first stamp to be produced with the a D. Grill. The grill is 15 points in width by 17 to 18 points in height. An estimated 500,000 3-cent Washington stamps with the D. Grill are believed to have been produced.
The E. Grill went into regular production, replacing the D. Grill, in February of 1868. Within that month the E. Grill would be produced with the 1-cent through 15-cent stamps of the 1861-1866 Issues. The E. grill is 14 points in width by 15 to 17 points in height. A total estimated 111,000,000 stamps with the E. Grill of the above mentioned denominations were printed by the National Bank Note Company.
The F. Grill went into full use in March of 1868, completely replacing the Z. Grill. Of all the grills, the F. Grill was produced on the most denominations. The F. grill is 11 to 12 points in width by 15 to 17 points in height. A total estimated 291,590,000 stamps with the F. Grill of the 1-cent through 90-cent denominations of the 1861-1866 Issues were printed by the National Bank Note Company.
The 5-cent Jefferson of the 1861 Issue was printed in buff, a notable color differenceto previous 5c stamps. Most usage occurred in the second half of 1861 through the end of 1862, and the shades range from buff (the most common) to brown yellow and olive yellow. The 5-cent stamp typically paid the single-weight rate to France when used with a 10-cent stamp or two more 5-cent stamps. Otherwise, in combination with other denominations, it paid the larger weight and foreign destination rates. National Bank Note Company printed approximately 175,000 stamps of this stamp, including all its shades.
The 10-cent Washington of the 1861 Issue was engraved from Stuart's unfinished portrait of the first American president. The 10-cent stamp typically paid the single-weight, cross-border rate to Canada or the transcontinental rate to and from California. The 10-cent stamp could have been used, in combination with other denominations, to fulfill larger weight and foreign destination rates. Approximately 27,300,000 stamps of the 10-cent Washington were printed by National Bank Note Company.
The single 12-cent stamp typically paid the single-weight rate to England after the January 1, 1868, reduction. Before that date the rate would have required two 12-cent stamps. It was also used in combination with other denominations to fulfill larger weight and foreign destination rates. Approximately 7,314,000 stamps of the 12-cent Washington were printed by National Bank Note Company. This painting was one of two unfinished portraits of the Washingtons that Martha Washington had commissioned in 1796. She had intended them for the family home, Mount Vernon, but Stuart failed to deliver them. They had hung in the Boston Athenaeum from 1828 until 1874 in an exposition honoring the late artist. And when the Boston Museum of Fine Arts was built, the unfinished Stuart portraits were exhibited there on long-term loan. After a century of housing and exhibiting the portraits, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C., were given the option to buy the two paintings. The two institutions now co-own the portraits.
The 24-cent Washington 1861 issue, which had some of the most intricate frame engravings of any U.S. stamp to that date, is known for its many different color shades. The 24-cent Washington typically paid the single-weight letter rate to England until January 1, 1868, when the rate was reduced to twelve cents. Otherwise, the 24-cent stamp was used in combination with other denominations to fulfill greater weight and foreign destination rates. National Bank Note Company printed over 500,000 24-cent Washington stamps.
In late summer 1861 Benjamin Franklin was chosen once again as the subject for an American stamp. The 30-cent Franklin was distinguished by its bright orange color from the other seven stamps of the 1861 Issue. A single 30-cent Franklin could have paid the double-weight rate to France or Nova Scotia, but it typically paid, in combination with other denominations, the larger weight and foreign destination rates. A total of over 3,300,000 stamps of the thirty-cent issue were printed by National Bank Note Company.
The 1861 Issue 90-cent Washington has many similarities to its 1851-1861 Issue counterpart. Though printed by two different companies, Joseph I. Pease engraved both stamps, using John Trumbulls portrait of Washington as inspiration. The 1861 stamp was supposed to be issued with a change in design and color to differentiate it from the previous issue, but the color remained blue. The major difference between the two issues was the amount of time they were in use. The first 90-cent Washington was in use less than a year, explaining why used examples are considerably scarcer than mint copies. The 1861 Issue 90-cent Washington was in use over seven years, and consequently the 90-cent Washington of the 1861 Issue had a printing more than ten times greater than its earlier counterpart. The 90-cent Washington of the 1861 Issue fulfilled the double-weight rate to India, Australia, Brazil, Hong Kong, and several other countries and, in combination with other denominations, larger weight and foreign destination rates. A total of over 380,000 stamps of the 90-cent Washington were printed by National Bank Note Company. In 1869 the 90-cent Washington was replaced by the 90-cent Lincoln.
All 5-cent Jefferson issues produced by National Bank Note Company while under federal contract have the same design but were printed in different ink colors. In fact, the 5-cent Jefferson is the only stamp to go through so many official color changes. The 1861 issue had been released in a buff color, a radical change from the darker hues (red brown, brown, etc.) of the 1851-1861 Issue. In 1862, when NBNCo printed its 5-cent Jefferson stamp in a red brown ink, it reverted to the color type of the Toppan, Carpenter issues. By 1863 the stamp had gone through yet another color change, back to brown. The 5-cent Jefferson typically paid the single-weight rate to France in combination with a 10-cent or two more 5-cent stamps. It could also have been used in combination with other denominations to fulfill larger weight and foreign destination rates. National Bank Note Company printed approximately 1,000,000 red brown stamps and 6,500,000 brown stamps for the 1862 and 1863 issues of the 5-cent Jefferson.
The 24-cent Washington of the 1862 Issue reused the printing plate of the previous year and incorporated a slightly different palate of color shades. Lilac, grayish lilac, and gray were the most common colors employed; blackish violet was the rarest. The issue's portrait engraver was William Marshall, the same artist who produced the 10- and 12-cent Washington 1861 Issues. William D. Nichols and Cyrus Durand (who is credited with inventing a machine to produce intricate lathe work on banknotes and later on stamps) engraved the frame. Durands younger brother Asher is believed to have engraved the Washington portrait for the Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson 10-cent 1847 Issue. The Durand brothers were the only contemporaries of Washington to engrave his portrait for postage stamps. Cyrus Durand, who engraved the frame for the 24-cent Washington 1862 Issue, was twelve years old when Washington died; Asher, who was only three years old at Washington's death, likely had no memory of the first president. Cyrus was also the only stamp engraver to be a contemporary of Benjamin Franklin. A single 24-cent Washington was most often used to pay the single-weight rate to England until January 1, 1868, when the rate was reduced to twelve cents. Otherwise, used in combination with other denominations, it fulfilled larger weight and foreign destination rates. The second printing of the 24-cent stamp was considerably larger than the 1861 Washington. Including all shades, a total of over 9,600,000 stamps of the 1862 24-cent issue were printed by National Bank Note Company.